Mandarin fruits – a valuable dietary fruit that increases appetite, improves metabolism and saturates the body with vitamins in the winter …
Mandarin (lat. Citrus reticulata) – the fruit of an evergreen tree of the genus Citrus (Citrus) family Rutovye. This is a citrus fruit 4-6 cm in diameter, slightly flattened from the base to the apex, so its width is noticeably greater than its height. The peel of the mandarin is thin, grows loose to the pulp. Slices in one fruit 10-12, they are well separated from each other (perhaps better than any other of the popular citrus fruits), their flesh is yellow-orange, sweeter than orange. Mandarin smells stronger than many other citrus fruits.
Mandarin comes from southern China and southeast Indochina. He was brought to Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Now mandarin is widely cultivated throughout the southern and western Mediterranean (for example, in Morocco, Algeria, Spain, Southern France), as well as in Japan, China, the countries of Indochina, Argentina. The closest to our country, tangerines are grown in the countries of Transcaucasia.
Mandarin fruit – a valuable dietary fruit that increases appetite, improves metabolism and saturates the body with vitamins in the winter. Tangerines and tangerine juice have a general strengthening effect on the body, promote digestion, and due to phytoncide properties they have an antimicrobial effect.
Alcohol tincture from tangerine peel increases appetite, improves digestion, softens the inflammatory secretion in the bronchi and upper respiratory tract, and promotes the separation of sputum. In oriental medicine, the tincture of the peel, as well as its aqueous infusion or decoction, was used for bronchitis, nausea, as an antitussive and a digestive aid.
Species and varieties
In Russian stores, tangerines are sold from North Africa (including Morocco), Indochina, Latin America, Transcaucasia (including Georgia, Abkhazia), the Middle East (including Turkey), Southern Europe (before sanctions on the shelves were tangerines from Spain) and other regions.
Fairchild variety. This variety is a blend of Clementine and Tangelo mandarin varieties. The skin color of the fruit is saturated orange.
Grade Honey, aka Murcott. This is a hybrid of orange and mandarin; the skin color of the fruit varies from yellow to orange, sometimes it can be green. The taste qualities of this variety are simply excellent, tangerines are very sweet and juicy. The season for this variety begins in November and ends in January.
Variety Sunburst. This variety of tangerine differs from other varieties in its smooth skin (which is rare in tangerines, as well as in oranges), the skin color of the fruit is orange-red.
Grade Robinson. The fruits of this variety of mandarin differ from other varieties in a very sweet taste, the skin color of the fruit is saturated orange.
Grade Fallglo. A distinctive feature of this variety of mandarins is their size, as they are very large, which is usually not typical for other varieties of mandarins. The peel of the fruit has a deep orange color.
Variety Dancy. This variety belongs to one of the oldest varieties of mandarin, at one time it was very popular. This variety comes from the state of Florida, appeared in 1867. Now this variety is not in great demand, because when grown it is very sensitive to various diseases. The fruits are very juicy and tasty.
Tangerine A fairly well-known variety of tangerines. The fruits have excellent taste, slightly tart. The peel color of the fruit is richly orange, fairly smooth to the touch.
Temple. This variety of mandarins is also known under the name Royal Mandarin. Its fruits are a cross between tangerines and oranges. There are a lot of seeds in the fruits, they taste very sweet, juicy, the peel has an orange color. The fruit harvest season begins in January and ends in March.
Popular varieties of mandarin indoor cultivation are Unshiu, Kovano-Vasse and Shiva-Mikan.
- Clementine, also known as Algerian mandarin. This is a hybrid of mandarin orange. It has a sweet taste, as well as the absence of seeds in the fruits. Clementines are mainly imported from North Africa and Spain.
- Tangelo. This variety is a mixture of certain varieties of mandarin and grapefruit, it also reminds of pomelo. The tangel fruit looks like a big orange. It tastes like ordinary mandarin, gives a little taste of grapefruit.
- Mineola is also a hybrid of mandarin and grapefruit. Mineols are pear-shaped and have a bright orange color with a reddish tint. This fruit has a very sweet taste.
- Natsumikan is also a hybrid of mandarin with grapefruit. It tastes more like an orange.
How to cook
Mandarin fruits are used fresh and for the manufacture of fruit juices and compotes. They are put in fruit salads and desserts. As a spice it is used for making sauces, fish, poultry, rice dishes.
Mandarin peel is used as a substitute for orange peel in the preparation of various medicines, infusions, syrups, extracts, as well as in the food industry.
The season of most varieties of mandarin lasts from November to April. However, they are sold in stores all year round.
How to choose and store
Look at the tangerine peel. A dried, sluggish or sometimes woody skin indicates that the fruit lies for a long time or is overripe. Unripe mandarin is heavy, the skin is almost all green and very poorly peeled off. A sign of poor-quality mandarin is the presence of mold, brown spots or areas of decay.
It is easy to determine the ripeness of tangerine by the ratio of its size to weight, since all ripe tangerines always weigh less than they seem at first glance.
For sweet tangerines, a bright orange peel is characteristic. Sometimes you can find sweet tangerines with a yellow peel. Sweet tangerines are usually medium in size.
A flattened shape is characteristic of acid mandarins. Sour tangerines are often a little lighter than sweet varieties.
Light-weight tangerines are usually hard-fiber, have many seeds and do not have an optimal fluid volume.
To determine the maturity of a tangerine, squeeze its skin slightly: a ripe fruit will drip with droplets of juice. Also, after pressing, ripe mandarin will easily return to its shape.
Tangerines are best stored in a special compartment of the refrigerator, where they do not rot and do not dry out for almost a month. But even in this case, the fruit must be regularly reviewed: if the rotting process had already begun in the fruits and they were spoiled before laying the vegetables for storage, then lowering the temperature would not stop it.
At room temperature, tangerines deteriorate even faster, and in a too warm room they also dry, losing not only their beneficial properties, but also their taste.
In winter, tangerines can be stored on the insulated balcony, where the temperature does not fall below six degrees. At the same time, they should lie in a ventilated box.
The method of storing fruit in a plastic bag, which is popular with most people, is actually bad: the bag creates increased humidity and the fruit suffocates.
It is believed that the fruits on which the branch has been preserved remain fresh longer, but such products are extremely rare, so this advice is more suitable for those who can pluck the fruits on their own.